The diagnostic gold standard for dissociative identity disorder (DID) is the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D). Both of these are structured clinical interviews that are designed to assess for dissociative symptoms, including those specific to DID, and to rule out other possible explanations for these symptoms. They are considered to be the most reliable and valid tools for diagnosing DID.
Unfortunately the diagnosis of DID is complex and can be difficult to make, so professionals are expected to use multiple sources of information, including a thorough clinical interview, medical examination, and psychological testing when making a diagnosis.
In practical reality, some folks are able to be diagnosed without using these structured interview tools.
The Structured Clinical Interview for Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) is a comprehensive, semi-structured interview that aims to assess the presence and severity of symptoms of dissociation and related symptoms such as amnesia, depersonalization, derealization and the presence of alter identities. It's also used to rule out other possible causes of dissociative symptoms such as psychosis, malingering, or factitious disorder. It is used to assess for dissociative disorders, including dissociative identity disorder (DID). It is a widely used and accepted tool for the diagnosis of DID.
The SCID-D is currently used by many mental health professionals to aid in the diagnosis of dissociative disorders, however, it is not without its limitations. One limitation is that it is based on self-report, which can be influenced by a person's level of insight or ability to accurately report their experiences. Additionally, the SCID-D is not always able to distinguish between dissociative symptoms that are part of a dissociative disorder and those that are part of other mental disorders such as borderline personality disorder, schizophrenia, or PTSD.
Another limitation is that the SCID-D is not a diagnostic gold standard, and some experts in the field have raised concerns about its validity and reliability. Some have argued that the SCID-D is too broad and inclusive in its criteria, leading to overdiagnosis of DID. Others have argued that it is not specific enough, leading to underdiagnosis of DID.
The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) is a self-report questionnaire that measures the frequency and severity of dissociative experiences. The scale consists of 28 items, each of which describes a different dissociative experience, such as feeling detached from one's body or having gaps in memory. Respondents rate how often they have experienced each item on a scale of 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating greater dissociation.
The DES is widely used as a screening tool for dissociative disorders, including dissociative identity disorder (DID). It is also used as a research tool to study dissociation and dissociative disorders. However, it is not considered a diagnostic tool and should not be used to make a diagnosis of DID on its own. A diagnosis of DID requires a comprehensive assessment including a clinical interview and the use of other diagnostic tools such as SCID-D.
The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) is a structured diagnostic interview for dissociative disorders. It is used to assess for the presence of dissociative symptoms and disorders, including dissociative identity disorder (DID). The DDIS consists of a series of questions that assess for symptoms such as amnesia, depersonalization, derealization, and the presence of alter identities.
The DDIS is a well-validated tool that has been used in many research studies on dissociative disorders. However, it is not as widely used in clinical practice as some other diagnostic tools, such as the Structured Clinical Interview for Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D). It is considered a reliable tool for the diagnosis of dissociative disorders, but it should not be used as the sole diagnostic tool and should be complemented with other diagnostic tools and a thorough clinical assessment.
CDC & ADC
The Child Dissociative Checklist (CDC) and the Adolescent Dissociative Checklist (ADC) are self-report measures for dissociation in children and adolescents. The checklists assess for the presence of symptoms such as amnesia, depersonalization, derealization, and alter identities. The CDC and ADC are based on the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), which is a self-report measure of dissociation for adults.
The CDC and ADC are widely used in research studies on dissociative disorders in children and adolescents. They are considered a reliable tool for screening for dissociation in this population, but they should not be used as the sole diagnostic tool and should be complemented with other diagnostic tools and a thorough clinical assessment.
It is important to note that dissociative disorders are rare in children and adolescents, and are often accompanied by other mental health disorders such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, a thorough assessment of the child or adolescent's mental health history and current symptoms is essential to accurately diagnose dissociative disorders in this population.
--Answers were constructed with a big assist from ChatGPT.